Increment on the Quality Protein fraction of Cooked Voandzeia subterranean (hypogeal) Seed Flour Paste Meal by Added Soya beans (Glycean max) and cow pea (Vigna unguinata) Portions
Homogenization of Voandzeia subterranean bean seed flour in water with coconut or soya bean oils yielded an emulsion (milk) containing 20g protein and 30ml oil per liter whose stability was maintained after pasteurization. Curds similar to those prepared from soya beans were prepared from Voandzeia subterranean milk. This study investigated the effect of addition of soya bean and cow pea (Vigna unguiculata) fractions to Voandzeia subterranean (Voandzeia hypogeal) bean seed flour on the nature of cooked Voandzeia subterranean (hypogeal) bean seed flour paste meal fractions. The cooked meal fractions of Voandzeia subterranean bean seed flour paste prepared with palm oil and warm (65-700C) water (Okpa meal) were compared with the cooked meal fractions of a liquid (suspension) flour paste prepared from a mixture of Voandzeia subterranean bean flour (50%), Soya bean flour (16.66%) and cow pea (Vigna unguiculata) bean seed flour (33.33%) with palm oil and warm water of 65-700C. The Voandzeia hypogea seed flour gelatinized through the action of the heat of the paste forming water and the action of the dilute acid formed between sodium chloride (salt) and water to produce dextrins, maltose and glucose which formed glycolipides with the palm oil mixed into the flour. These glycolipides interacted with the components of the Voandzeia hypogeal seed flour lecithin to form a 98-100% homogenous solid glycoprotein cooked meal and a 0-2% “meaty” or scrambled egg-like protein (milk curd-like) fraction. The flour paste prepared from a mixture of Voandzeia subterranean bean, Soya beans, cow pea (Vigna unguiculata) seed flours, palm oil and warm water of 65-700C similarly produced a cooked paste meal composed of a white gelatinous fraction (15%); a soft yellow cooked egg-yolk-like glycoprotein fraction (5-40%) and a “meaty” or scrambled egg-like protein (milk curd-like) fraction (45-80%). From these results, it is concluded that addition of 33.33% Vigna unguiculata bean seed flour and 16.66% soya bean flour to Voandzeia subtarranea bean seed flour decreased the egg yolk-like glycoprotein fraction of the cooked flour paste from 98% or 100% to 40-20% and increased the “meaty” or scrambled egg-like protein fraction from 0%- 2% to 45-80%. These results suggest that addition of Vigna unguiculats and soya beans seed flours to Voandzeia hypogeal seed flour in the presence of vegetable oil and warm-hot water produced 45%-80% cooked milk curd-like protein fractions of Voandzeia hypogeal seed paste meals that are suitable for the feeding of infants, the sick and the elderly.
Keywords: Voandzeia hypogeal ,protein increment, subterranean, soya beans cow pea, Vigna unguiculata, Glycean max.