Assessment of Environmental Health Conditions in Urban Squatters of Greater Khartoum, Mayo Area in the Southern Khartoum, Sudan: 1987 – 2011
Based on data provided by two fieldworks conducted in 1987 and 2011 in the squatter area of Mayo, in the southern Khartoum town, environmental health conditions were investigated. The objectives of this study are to judge for improvement or not in environmental health conditions and to propose a model for the promotion of environmental health conditions in this squatter area. The judgment was based on comparing demographic, socioeconomic and nutritional characteristics of the population, the residential environment characteristics including housing; water supply, sanitation and health services of the two field surveys spanned for 25 years. Results depicted that population from the study area still having high average parity, and do not practice family planning and there was no decline in fertility rate. The population is urban poor, and women and children still the main source of the household income. Educational attainment did not improve between the two surveys thus Illiteracy is still prevalent. In 2011, 84% of the households were served by water vendors compared to 95% in 1987. Calculation of the cost of water purchase during 1987 for a household was of 30 USD per month, which is seven times the cost in 2011. In 2011 the water purchased from the donkey carts was often contaminated between the source and the household. In 1987, bacteriological test of water depicted faecal contamination exceeded the limit of 10/1000 ML recommended by World Health Organization in 1983. In 2011, and similarly in 1987 open defecation is the general norm in the area. Management of solid waste is a huge challenge where piles of solid wastes are dumped at an empty and open space closer to dwellings in 2011 and 1987. In 2011, 90% people living in the area suffered a lot from lack of food as the food quality was very poor and not diversified, while in 1987, the people from 60% of the households surveyed with one meal per day. The general results show no improvement in environmental health conditions in the study area. The authors propose the “RENGES” model to help promoting environmental health conditions in Mayo area.
Keywords: Urban Sudan, Greater Khartoum, squatter areas, hygiene, sanitation, nutrition, education, income, residential environment, promotion, demolition, RENGES